The following list of scholarly works on Bitcoin has been compiled by Brett Scott, Author of The Heretic’s Guide to Global Finance.

About Brett

“I explore economic systems. I have a book called The Heretic’s Guide to Global Finance: Hacking the Future of Money, published with Pluto Press. I’ve written for publications like the Guardian, Wired, New Scientist, Ecologist, New Internationalist, Aeon Mag & openDemocracy and have appeared on shows such as BBC World Update, BBC Newsday, the Keiser Report, and Arte TV. I’ve worked as a broker, barman and blues musician, and I’m a Fellow at the Finance Innovation Lab. I blog here and tweet as @Suitpossum.”

Forthcoming Traversing Bitcoin’s P2P network: insights into the structure of a decentralised currency International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering Sebastian Feld, Mirco Schönfeld, Martin Werner
2015 Accounting Issues Related to Bitcoins Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance Cecily Raiborn andMarcos Sivitanides
2015 Bitcoins as an investment or speculative vehicle? A first look Applied Economics Letters Baek; Elbeck
2015 How Perfect Offline Wallets Can Still Leak Bitcoin Private Keys ArXiv Stephan Verbücheln
2015 Bitcoin and Islamic Finance ViXra Jan Bergstra
2014 Bitcoin Journal of Economic Perspectives, Forthcoming Rainer Böhme
2014 Do libertarians dream of electric coins? The material embeddedness of Bitcoin Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory Henrik Karlstrøm
2014 The veil of economy: electronic money and the pyramidal structure of societies Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory Christian Papilloud & Aldo Haesler
2014 Between Bitcoins and mobile payments: will the European Commission’s new proposal provide more legal certainty? International Journal of Law and Information Technology Niels Vandezande
2014 Are You Ready for Digital Currency? Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance Antoinette Smith andMiriam F. Weismann
2014 The Ethics of Payments: Paper, Plastic, or Bitcoin? Journal of Business Ethics James J. Angel, Douglas McCabe
2014 The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital Currencies Journal of Financial Stability Gerald P. Dwyer
2014 Synthetic commodity money Journal of Financial Stability George Selgin
2014 Cryptocurrencies: an unconventional challenge to the AML/CFT regulators? Journal of Financial Crime Victor Dostov, Pavel Shust
2014 The politics of cryptography: Bitcoin and the ordering machines Journal of Peer Production Quinn DuPont
2014 The paradoxes of distributed trust: Peer-to-peer architecture and user confidence in Bitcoin Journal of Peer Production Alexandre Mallard, Cécile Méadel and Francesca Musiani
2014 Can Bitcoin compete with money? Journal of Peer Production Beat Weber
2014 Bitcoin: The Economic Case for a Global, Virtual Currency Operating in an Unexplored Legal Framework Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies Jonathan Turpin
2014 Inferring the interplay between network structure and market effects in Bitcoin New Journal of Physics Kondor, Dániel; Csabai, István; Szüle, János; Pósfai, Márton; Vattay, Gábor
2014 (May) Bitcoin: A Regulatory Nightmare to a Libertarian Dream Internet Policy Review, 3(2). Primavera De Filippi
2014 (Aug) The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy Journal of the Royal Society Interface David Garcia, Claudio Juan Tessone, Pavlin Mavrodiev, Nicolas Perony
2014 (May) Do the Rich Get Richer? An Empirical Analysis of the Bitcoin Transaction Network PLoS ONE Dániel Kondor, Márton Pósfai, István Csabai, Gábor Vattay
2014 Alderney: gambling, Bitcoin and the art of unorthodoxy Island Studies Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2014 John Connell, University of Sydney
2014 (April) How to Price a Digital Currency? Empirical Insights on the Influence of Media Coverage on the Bitcoin Bubble Banking and Information Technology, Vol.15, No. 1, 2014 Florian Glaser, Martin Haferkorn, Moritz Christian Weber, Kai Zimmermann (Goethe University Frankfurt Faculty of Economics and Business Administration)
2014 Regulating Cryptocurrencies in the United States: Current Issues and Future Directions William Mitchell Law Review, Vol. 40, No. 813, 2014 / Indiana Legal Studies Research Paper No. 282 Sarah Jane Hughes
2014 Why on Earth Do People Use Bitcoin? Business & Bankruptcy L.J., Forthcoming Catherine Martin Christopher
2014 Exploring the Bitcoin System: a Complex EconoSociotechnical Systems (CEST) Perspective International Journal of Conceptions on Management and Social Sciences Nikunj Dalal
2014 The (A)Political Economy of Bitcoin Communication, Capitalism & Critique: Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society Vasilis Kostakis, Chris Giotitsas
2014 (Dec) Bitcoin and the legitimacy crisis of money Cambridge Journal of Economics Beat Weber
2014 Bitcoin: Technical Background and Data Analysis Federal Reserve: Finance and Economics Discussion Series Divisions of Research & Statistics and Monetary Affairs Federal Reserve Board, Washington, D.C. Anton Badev and Matthew Chen
2014 Bitcoin-Based Decentralized Carbon Emissions Trading Infrastructure Model Systems Engineering Enas Al Kawasmi, Edin Arnautovic, Davor Svetinovic
2014 Towards Risk Scoring of Bitcoin Transactions Financial Cryptography and Data Security Malte Möser, Rainer Böhme, Dominic Breuker
2014 Challenges and Opportunities Associated with a Bitcoin-Based Transaction Rating System Financial Cryptography and Data Security David Vandervort
2014 Bitcoin: A First Legal Analysis Financial Cryptography and Data Security Franziska Boehm, Paulina Pesch
2014 Empirical Analysis of Denial-of-Service Attacks in the Bitcoin Ecosystem Financial Cryptography and Data Security Marie Vasek, Micah Thornton, Tyler Moore
2014 Game-Theoretic Analysis of DDoS Attacks Against Bitcoin Mining Pools Financial Cryptography and Data Security Benjamin Johnson, Aron Laszka, Jens Grossklags, Marie Vasek, Tyler Moore
2014 The Bitcoin P2P Network Financial Cryptography and Data Security Joan Antoni Donet Donet, Cristina Pérez-Solà, Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí
2014 Fair Two-Party Computations via Bitcoin Deposits Financial Cryptography and Data Security Marcin Andrychowicz, Stefan Dziembowski, Daniel Malinowski, Łukasz Mazurek
2014 Increasing Anonymity in Bitcoin Financial Cryptography and Data Security Amitabh Saxena, Janardan Misra, Aritra Dhar
2014 Rational Zero: Economic Security for Zerocoin with Everlasting Anonymity Financial Cryptography and Data Security Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Aviel D. Rubin
2014 On Offline Payments with Bitcoin Financial Cryptography and Data Security Alexandra Dmitrienko, David Noack, Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Moti Yung
2014 One Weird Trick to Stop Selfish Miners: Fresh Bitcoins, A Solution for the Honest Miner Financial Cryptography and Data Security Ethan Heilman
2014 From Bitcoin to the Brixton Pound: History and Prospects for Alternative Currencies Financial Cryptography and Data Security Garrick Hileman
2014 How Did Dread Pirate Roberts Acquire and Protect his Bitcoin Wealth? Financial Cryptography and Data Security Dorit Ron, Adi Shamir
2014 Mixed Reality Through the Internet of Things and Bitcoin: How Laws Affect Them E-Democracy, Security, Privacy and Trust in a Digital World Anastasia Michailaki
2014 CoinShuffle: Practical Decentralized Coin Mixing for Bitcoin Computer Security – ESORICS 2014 Tim Ruffing, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, Aniket Kate
2014 Bitcoin Is Volatile! Isn’t that Right? Business Information Systems Workshops Svetlana Sapuric, Angelika Kokkinaki
2014 The Analysis and Countermeasures on Security Breach of Bitcoin Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2014 Il-Kwon Lim, Young-Hyuk Kim, Jae-Gwang Lee, Jae-Pil Lee, Hyun Nam-Gung, Jae-Kwang Lee
2014 Noncausal Autoregressive Model in Application to Bitcoin/USD Exchange Rates Econometrics of Risk Andrew Hencic, Christian Gouriéroux
2014 An Analysis of Anonymity in Bitcoin Using P2P Network Traffic Financial Cryptography and Data Security Philip Koshy, Diana Koshy, Patrick McDaniel
2014 Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable Financial Cryptography and Data Security Ittay Eyal, Emin Gün Sirer
2014 Optimizing SHA256 in Bitcoin Mining Cryptography and Security Systems Nicolas T. Courtois, Marek Grajek, Rahul Naik
2014 Modeling Bitcoin Contracts by Timed Automata Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems Marcin Andrychowicz, Stefan Dziembowski, Daniel Malinowski, Łukasz Mazurek
2014 BlueWallet: The Secure Bitcoin Wallet Security and Trust Management Tobias Bamert, Christian Decker, Roger Wattenhofer, Samuel Welten
2014 Are Bitcoin Users Less Sociable? An Analysis of Users’ Language and Social Connections on Twitter HCI International 2014 – Posters’ Extended Abstracts Ivan Hernandez, Masooda Bashir, Gahyun Jeon, Jeremiah Bohr
2014 Hiding Transaction Amounts and Balances in Bitcoin Trust and Trustworthy Computing Elli Androulaki, Ghassan O. Karame
2014 BitIodine: Extracting Intelligence from the Bitcoin Network Financial Cryptography and Data Security Michele Spagnuolo, Federico Maggi, Stefano Zanero
2014 Bitcoin Transaction Malleability and MtGox Computer Security – ESORICS 2014 Christian Decker, Roger Wattenhofer
2014 Towards an Agenda for Information Systems Research on Digital Currencies and Bitcoin Business Information Systems Workshops George M. Giaglis, Kalliopi N. Kypriotaki
2014 Mixcoin: Anonymity for Bitcoin with Accountable Mixes Financial Cryptography and Data Security Joseph Bonneau, Arvind Narayanan, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten
2014 How to Use Bitcoin to Design Fair Protocols Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2014 Iddo Bentov, Ranjit Kumaresan
2014 Certified Bitcoins Applied Cryptography and Network Security Giuseppe Ateniese, Antonio Faonio, Bernardo Magri, Breno de Medeiros
2014 Towards a More Democratic Mining in Bitcoins Information Systems Security Goutam Paul, Pratik Sarkar, Sarbajit Mukherjee
2014 Consumer Trust in Digital Currency Enabled Transactions Business Information Systems Workshops Alex Zarifis, Leonidas Efthymiou, Xusen Cheng, Salomi Demetriou
2014 Fawkescoin Security Protocols XXII Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller
2014 Recirculating Lost Coins in Cryptocurrency Systems Business Information Systems Workshops Harald Gjermundrød, Ioanna Dionysiou
2014 Materiality, Symbol, and Complexity in the Anthropology of Money The Psychological Science of Money Taylor C. Nelms, Bill Maurer
2014 Protocol for irreversible off-line transactions in anonymous electronic currency exchange Soft Computing Marek R. Ogiela, Piotr Sułkowski
2014 Bitcoin Versus Electronic Money World Bank Other Operational Studies from The World Bank Sarah Rotman
2014 (June) The Bitcoin Question: Currency versus Trust-less Transfer Technology OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions Adrian Blundell-Wignall
2014 An Investigation of the Theory of Disruptive Innovation: Does the Cryptocurrency Bitcoin Have the Potential to be a Disruptive Innovation Relative to an Existing Market? Masters thesis Mark McDougall
2014 Analyzing the Deployment of Bitcoin’s P2P Network under an AS-level Perspective Procedia Computer Science Feld, Sebastian
2014 The Economics of the Bitcoin System Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management Gheorghe Popescu
2014 State of Bitcoin 2014 Coindesk Coindesk
2014 Visions of a Techno-Leviathan: The Politics of the Bitcoin Blockchain E-International Relations Brett Scott
2014 (Oct) Bitcoin: not a Currency-Like Informational Commodity ViXra Jan Bergstra
2014 (Jun) Proof of Activity: Extending Bitcoin’s Proof of Work via Proof of Stake Cryptology ePrint archive Iddo Bentov and Charles Lee and Alex Mizrahi and Meni Rosenfeld
2014 (Nov) How to Use Bitcoin to Incentivize Correct Computations 21st ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security – CCS 2014 Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov
2014 Cryptocurrencies without Proof of Work Israel Institute of Technology Iddo Bentov, Ariel Gabizon and Alex Mizrahi
2014 (Dec) A Million Metaorder Analysis of Market Impact on the Bitcoin SSRN (Université Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie / Capital Fund Management) Jonathan Donier
2014 (Dec) Bitcoin through the Lenses of Complexity Theory: Some Non-Orthodox Implications for Economic Theorizing Handbook of Geography of Money and Finance, Edward Elgar, Forthcoming Marc Pilkington
2014 (Dec) The Market for Cryptocurrencies GMU Working Paper in Economics No. 14-45 Lawrence H. White
2014 (Dec) Chain Of A Lifetime: How Blockchain Technology Might Transform Personal Insurance Long Finance Long Finance Research Paper
2014 (Nov) The Political Economy of Bitcoin SSRN (University of Mississippi, Troy University, Kenyon College) Josh Hendrickson
2014 (Nov) An Analysis of Bitcoin Exchange Rates SSRN (University of Houston – Department of Economics) Jacob B. Smith
2014 (Nov) Bitcoin: Tra Moneta Virtuale E Commodity Finanziaria (Bitcoin: Between Digital Currency and Financial Commodity) SSRN (University of Bologna – Research Center of History of Law, Philosophy and Sociology of Law, and Computer Science and Law) Maria Letizia Perugini
2014 (Nov) Qualified Money – A Better Financial System for the Future SSRN (ETH Zürich – Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences (GESS); ETH Zürich) Dirk Helbing
2014 (Nov) Characteristics of Bitcoin Users: An Analysis of Google Search Data MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany Matthew Graham Wilson
2014 (Oct) Price Fluctuations and the Use of Bitcoin: An Empirical Inquiry SSRN (Nicolaus Copernicus University, University of Leicester, Warsaw School of Economics) Michal Polasik
2014 (Oct) Crypto-Currency and the Problem of Intermediation SSRN (George Mason University – Department of Economics) Cameron Harwick
2014 (Oct) Trends, Tips, Tolls: A Longitudinal Study of Bitcoin Transaction Fees 2nd Workshop on Bitcoin Research, affiliated with the19th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, Puerto Rico, January 30, 2015 Forthcoming Malte Möser
2014 (Oct) Can We Stabilize the Price of a Cryptocurrency?: Understanding the Design of Bitcoin and Its Potential to Compete with Central Bank Money No 617, Discussion Paper Series from Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University Mitsuru Iwamura
2014 (Oct) A Conceptual Framework for the Regulation of Cryptocurrencies University of Chicago Law Review Dialogue, Vol. 81, 2015 Forthcoming Omri Y. Marian
2014 (Oct) Exploring the Determinants of Bitcoin Exchange Rate SSRN (City University of Hong Kong) Xin Li
2014 (Oct) Regulating Bitcoin and Block Chain Derivatives NYLS Legal Studies Research Paper Houman B. Shadab
2014 (Oct) BitProperty Southern California Law Review, Vol. 88, 2015, Forthcoming Joshua Fairfield
2014 (Sept) Fisher Money: Empowering Bitcoin With Multiple Units of Account SSRN (Milan Bicocca University – Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods; QuantLib; Banca IMI – IntesaSanpaolo Group) Ferdinando M. Ametrano
2014 (Sept) Bitcoin Markets SSRN (University of Mannheim) Christopher Fink
2014 (Sept) The economics of digital currencies Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin 2014 Q3 Robleh Ali
2014 (Sept) Innovations in Payment Technologies and the Emergence of Digital Currencies Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin 2014 Q3 Robleh Ali
2014 (Sept) Competition in the Cryptocurrency Market CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP10157 Neil Gandal
2014 (Aug) Rethinking Virtual Currency Regulation in the Bitcoin Age Washington Law Review, Forthcoming Kevin V. Tu
2014 (Aug) Cryptofinance SSRN (Duke University – Fuqua School of Business ; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)) Campbell R. Harvey
2014 (Aug) Hayek Money: The Cryptocurrency Price Stability Solution SSRN (Milan Bicocca University – Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods ; QuantLib ; Banca IMI – IntesaSanpaolo Group) Ferdinando M. Ametrano
2014 (Aug) Internet Architecture and the Layers Principle: A Conceptual Framework for Regulating Bitcoin Internet Policy Review Andy Yee
2014 (Aug) Price Stability Using Cryptocurrency Seigniorage Shares SSRN (Milan Bicocca University – Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods; QuantLib; Banca IMI – IntesaSanpaolo Group) Ferdinando M. Ametrano
2014 (Aug) Bitcoin Myths and Facts SSRN (Duke University – Fuqua School of Business ; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)) Campbell R. Harvey
2014 (Aug) Bitcoin Financial Regulation: Securities, Derivatives, Prediction Markets, and Gambling Columbia Science and Technology Law Review (2014, Forthcoming) Jerry Brito
2014 (Aug) eCash in a Social Theory of Money: Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies SSRN Independent Frederik Simon The
2014 (July) Inv/Sav Wallets and the Role of Financial Intermediaries in a Digital Currency SSRN (Banca IMI; Bocconi University) Massimo Morini
2014 (July) The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital Currencies SSRN (Clemson University ; University of Carlos III ; Australian National University (ANU) – Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis) Gerald P. Dwyer
2014 (July) Bitcoin and the PPP Puzzle SSRN (Deutsche Bundesbank; SAFE, Goethe University; London School of Economics & Political Science; Frankfurt School of Finance & Management) Paolo Tasca
2014 (June) Bitcoin: The Wrong Implementation of the Right Idea at the Right Time SSRN (University of Sussex) Andrés Guadamuz
2014 (June) New Private Monies: A Bit-Part Player? Institute of Economic Affairs Monographs, Hobart Paper 174 Kevin Dowd
2014 (June) Can Bitcoin Become a Major Currency? GMU Working Paper in Economics No. 14-17 William J. Luther
2014 (May) The Origin, Classification and Utility of Bitcoin SSRN Independent Peter Šurda
2014 (May) The Time Value of a Digital Currency: Bitcoin Interest Rates Dynamics SSRN (Mazars Actuariat) Nicolas Wesner
2014 (April) The Pleasures and Perils of New Money in Old Pockets; M-PESA and Bitcoin in Kenya SSRN (Harvard University – Law School – Students) Diana Sirila
2014 (April) Should Virtual Currency Be Subject to Income Tax? SSRN (International Bureau for Fiscal Documentation (IBFD)) Aleksandra Bal
2014 (April) Economic Aspects of Bitcoin and Other Decentralized Public-Ledger Currency Platforms University of Chicago Coase-Sandor Institute for Law & Economics Research Paper No. 685 David S. Evans
2014 (April) Bitcoin – Asset or Currency? Revealing Users’ Hidden Intentions ECIS 2014 (Tel Aviv) / Goethe University Frankfurt Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Florian Glaser, Kai Zimmermann, Martin Haferkorn, Moritz Christian Weber, Michael Siering
2014 (April) The Virtues and Risks Inherent in the ‘Bitcoin’ Virtual Currency SSRN (University of Wales System – Cardiff Law School) Ajibola Ogunbadewa
2014 (April) Bitcoin in Singapore: A Light-Touch Approach to Regulation SSRN (National University of Singapore (NUS) – Faculty of Law) Pak Nian Lam
2014 (April) Why you Should Care about Bitcoin – Even if you don´t Believe in it SSRN Independent (University of Oxford ; Tufts University ) Ignacio Mas
2014 (March) Virtual Money Illusion and the Fundamental Value of Non-Fiat Anonymous Digital Payment Methods: Coining a (Bit of) Theory to Describe the Bitcoin Phenomenon SSRN (California State Polytechnic University, Pomona – Department of Economics) Greg W. Hunter
2014 (March) Virtual Currencies; Bitcoin & What Now after Liberty Reserve, Silk Road, and Mt. Gox? Richmond Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2014 Lawrence J. Trautman
2014 (March) The Bitcoin Mining Game SSRN (University of Lyon – Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Economique) Nicolas Houy
2014 (March) The Troubling Suppression of Competition from Alternative Monies: The Cases of the Liberty Dollar and E-Gold GMU Working Paper in Economics No. 14-06 Lawrence H. White
2014 (March) Bitcoin: A Search-Theoretic Approach International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy, Forthcoming Tetsuya Saito
2014 (March) Kickstarter My Heart: Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowdfunding Constraints and Bitcoin Bubbles SSRN (Western State University College of Law) David Groshoff
2014 (March) Bitcoin – Is it a Bubble? Evidence from Unit Root Tests SSRN (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) Akash Malhotra
2014 (Feb) Is Bitcoin the Only Cryptocurrency in the Town? Economics of Cryptocurrency And Friedrich A. Hayek No 602, Discussion Paper Series from Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University Mitsuru Iwamura
2014 (Feb) The Economics of Bitcoin Transaction Fees GATE Working Paper 1407 (University of Lyon) Nicolas Houy
2014 (Feb) A Simple Macroeconomic Model of Bitcoin SSRN (Bitquant Research Laboratories) Joseph Chen-Yu Wang
2014 (Jan) It Will Cost You Nothing to ‘Kill’ a Proof-of-Stake Crypto-Currency SSRN (University of Lyon – Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Economique) Nicolas Houy
2014 Whack-a-Mole: Why Prosecuting Digital Currency Exchanges Won’t Stop Online Laundering 18 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 1 (2014) Catherine Martin Christopher
2014 Bitcoin and Money Laundering: Mining for an Effective Solution 89 Ind. L.J. 441 (2014) / Indiana University Maurer School of Law Danton Bryans
2014 Anonymous Byzantine Consensus from Moderately-Hard Puzzles: A Model for Bitcoin University of Central Florida Andrew Miller
2014 Permacoin: Repurposing Bitcoin Work for Data Preservation University of Maryland Andrew Miller, Ari Juels, Elaine Shi, Bryan Parno and Jonathan Katz
2014 Nonoutsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to Discourage Bitcoin Mining Coalitions University of Maryland Andrew Miller, Elaine Shi, Ahmed Kosba, and Jonathan Katz
2014 When Bitcoin Mining Pools Run Dry A Game-Theoretic Analysis of the Long-Term Impact of Attacks Between Mining Pools 2nd Workshop on Bitcoin Research Aron Laszka, Benjamin Johnson, Jens Grossklags
2014 (Nov) The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications Yahoo Labs, University of Athens Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Nikos Leonardos
2014 (July) An Order-of-Magnitude Estimate of the Relative Sustainability of the Bitcoin Network Independent Hass McCook
2014 Network and Conversation Analyses of Bitcoin 2014 Complex Systems Summer School Proceedings Brais Alvarez-Pereira, Matthew Ayres, Ana María Gomez Lopez, Shai Gorsky, Sean Hayes, Zhi Qiao, Jessica Santana
2014 (Jan) Bitcoin Transaction Graph Analysis MIT paper Michael Fleder, Michael S. Kester, Sudeep Pillai
2014 The issue of competing currencies. Case study – Bitcoin Theoretical and Applied Economics Angela ROGOJANU, Liana BADEA, Bucharest University of Economic Studies
2014 (Spring) Coining Bitcoin’s ‘legal bits': Examining the regulatory framework for Bitcoin and virtual currencies Harvard Journal of Law & Technology Matthew Kien-Meng Ly
2014 Is Bitcoin business income or speculative bubble? Unconditional vs. conditional frequency domain analysis MPRA Paper Bouoiyour, Jamal and Selmi, Refk and Tiwari, Aviral
2014 Bitcoin Mining and its Energy Footprint IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference 2014 K.J. O’Dwyer, D. Malone
2014 Dynamic Common Law and Technological Change: The Classification of Bitcoin Washington and Lee Law Review Shawn Bayern
2014 Smart Contracts, Bitcoin Bots, and Consumer Protection Washington & Lee Law Review Joshua A.T. Fairfield, Washington and Lee University School of Law
2014 Bitcoin as money? Boston Federal Reserve, Current Policy Perspectives No. 14-4 Stephanie Lo and J. Christina Wang
2014 Taking a bit out of crime: Bitcoin and cross-border tax evasion 39 Brook. J. Int’l L. 829 (2014) Slattery, Thomas
2014 Vat and Bitcoin EC Tax Review Stefano Capaccioli
2014 Computers and Internet: Are All Modern Currencies Not Virtual? – The Bitcoin Phenomenon Business Law Review David Flint
2014 (Aug) The Anatomy of a Money-Like Informational Commodity: A Study of Bitcoin EBook Tim Swanson
2014 (April) Popping the Bitcoin Bubble: An application of log-periodic power law modeling to digital currency University of Notre Dame Alec MacDonell
2014 (April) bitcoin.BitMint: Reconciling Bitcoin with Central Banks Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2014/244 Gideon Samid
2014 What Does Crypto-currency Look Like? Gaining Insight into Bitcoin Phenomenon MPRA Paper Bouoiyour, Jamal and Selmi, Refk
2014 Sept Bitcoin – Between legal and informal CES Working Papers Loredana MAFTEI
2014 Bitkoin – Private cryptocurrency or means of payment of the the worldwide after capitalism The Russian Academy Journal Julia Lskavyan, Alexey Fedorov
2014 Securing Bitcoin wallets via threshold signatures Princeton Steven Goldfeder, Joseph Bonneau, Edward W. Felten, Joshua A. Kroll, Arvind Narayanan
2014 On Decentralizing Prediction Markets and Order Books WEIS 2014 accepted papers Jeremy Clark, Joseph Bonneau, Edward W. Felten, Joshua A. Kroll , Andrew Miller , and Arvind Narayanan
2014 (May) Bitcoin mining acceleration and performance quantification IEEE: Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), 2014 IEEE 27th Canadian Conference on Anish Dev, J.
2014 (June) Is Bitcoin a Decentralized Currency? IEEE: Security & Privacy, IEEE (Volume:12 , Issue: 3 ) Gervais, A. ; Karame, G.O. ; Capkun, V. ; Capkun, S.
2014 (May) Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin IEEE: Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on Ben Sasson, E. Chiesa, A. ; Garman, C. ; Green, M. ; Miers, I. ; Tromer, E. ; Virza, M.
2014 (May) Secure Multiparty Computations on Bitcoin IEEE: Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on Andrychowicz, M. ; Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland ; Dziembowski, S. ; Malinowski, D. ; Mazurek, L.
2014 (Nov) Optimistic Fair-Exchange with Anonymity for Bitcoin Users IEEE: e-Business Engineering (ICEBE), 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Jayasinghe, Danushka ; Markantonakis, Konstantinos ; Mayes, Keith
2014 (May) NRGcoin: Virtual currency for trading of renewable energy in smart grids IEEE: European Energy Market (EEM), 2014 11th International Conference on the Mihaylov, M. R&D Dept., Sensing & Control Syst., Barcelona, Spain Jurado, S. ; Avellana, N. ; Van Moffaert, K. ; de Abril, I.M. ; Nowe, A.
2014 (July) Who Uses Bitcoin? An exploration of the Bitcoin community IEEE: Privacy, Security and Trust (PST), 2014 Twelfth Annual International Conference on Bohr, J. ; Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA ; Bashir, M.
2014 (Aug) The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation EERI Research Paper Series from Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels Pavel Ciaian, Miroslava Rajcaniova, Kancs, d’Artis
2014 The Economics of Bitcoins – Market Characteristics and Price Jumps CESifo Working Paper Series from CESifo Group Munich Marc Gronwald
2014 What are the main drivers of the Bitcoin price? Evidence from wavelet coherence analysis No 23, FinMaP-Working Papers from Collaborative EU Project FinMaP – Financial Distortions and Macroeconomic Performance: Expectations, Constraints and Interaction of Agents Ladislav Krištoufek
2014 Bitcoin: something seems to be ‘fundamentally’ wrong Borradores de Economia, Banco de la Republica Jose E. Gomez-Gonzalez and Julian A. Parra-Polania*
2014 Demystifying Bitcoin: Sleight of Hand or Major Global Currency Alternative? Economic Analysis, 2014, vol. 47, issue 1-2 Marko Malovic
2014 (Oct) Sidechained Bitcoin substitutes: A monetary commentary Independent Konrad S. Graf
2014 (Oct) Enabling Blockchain Innovations with Pegged Sidechains Blockstream Adam Back, Matt Corallo, Luke Dashjr, Mark Friedenbach, Gregory Maxwell, Andrew Miller, Andrew Poelstra, Jorge Timón, and Pieter Wuille
2014 (April) Bitcoin Hurdles: the Public Goods Costs of Securing a Decentralized Seigniorage Network which Incentivizes Alternatives and Centralization Independent Tim Swanson
2014 (March) Revisiting conceptions of commodity and scarcity in light of Bitcoin Independent Konrad S. Graf
2014 (Jun) Near Zero Bitcoin Transaction Fees Cannot Last Forever The International Conference on Digital Security and Forensics (DigitalSec2014) Kerem Kaskaloglu
2014 (Dec) Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency ArXiv Christian Decker, Jochen Seidel, Roger Wattenhofer
2014 (Dec) Turning Bitcoins into the Best-coins ArXiv Siddharth Prakash Rao
2014 (Nov) The Miner’s Dilemma ArXiv Ittay Eyal
2014 (Nov) On the Complexity and Behaviour of Cryptocurrencies Compared to Other Markets ArXiv Daniel Wilson-Nunn, Hector Zenil
2014 (Oct) Bitcoin over Tor isn’t a good idea ArXiv Alex Biryukov, Ivan Pustogarov
2014 (Oct) Bayesian regression and Bitcoin ArXiv Devavrat Shah, Kang Zhang
2014 (Sept) A network-dependent rewarding system: proof-of-mining ArXiv Joe Lao
2014 (Sept) When Money Learns to Fly: Towards Sensing as a Service Applications Using Bitcoin ArXiv Kay Noyen, Dirk Volland, Dominic Wörner, Elgar Fleisch
2014 (Aug) A CryptoCubic Protocol for Hacker-Proof Off-Chain Bitcoin Transactions ArXiv Leonard Apeltsin
2014 (June) Nowcasting the Bitcoin Market with Twitter Signals ArXiv Jermain Kaminski, Peter Gloor
2014 (June) Using an Artificial Financial Market for studying a Cryptocurrency Market ArXiv Luisanna Cocco, Giulio Concas, Michele Marchesi
2014 (June) Operational Distributed Regulation for Bitcoin ArXiv Dinesh, Erlich, Gilfoyle, Jared, Richard, Johan Pouwelse
2014 (May) Deanonymisation of clients in Bitcoin P2P network ArXiv Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich, Ivan Pustogarov
2014 (May) Bitcoin Cooperative Proof-of-Stake ArXiv Stephen L. Reed
2014 (May) On The Longest Chain Rule and Programmed Self-Destruction of Crypto Currencies ArXiv Nicolas T. Courtois
2014 (April) A Bitcoin system with no mining and no history transactions: Build a compact Bitcoin system ArXiv Qian Xiaochao
2014 (March) Do Bitcoins make the world go round? On the dynamics of competing crypto-currencies ArXiv Stefan Bornholdt, Kim Sneppen
2014 (Feb) Bitcoin: a Money-like Informational Commodity ArXiv Jan A. Bergstra, Peter Weijland
2014 (Feb) On the Phase Space of Block-Hiding Strategies in Bitcoin-like networks ArXiv Assaf Shomer
2014 (Feb) Note on fair coin toss via Bitcoin ArXiv Adam Back, Iddo Bentov
2014 (Feb) Analysis of Hashrate-Based Double Spending ArXiv Meni Rosenfeld
2014 (Jan) On Subversive Miner Strategies and Block Withholding Attack in Bitcoin Digital Currency ArXiv Nicolas T. Courtois, Lear Bahack
2014 (May) Creating a decentralised payment network:A study of Bitcoin Thesis, Oxford University, Economics Dept Jonathan Levin
2014 Bitcoin: A Seemingly Rampant Elevator, or is Someone Pushing its Buttons? : A Case Study on Bitcoin’s Fluctuations in Price and Concept Thesis, Södertörn University Wandery, Oscar
2014 Realizing physical bitcoin payments andmapping the enabled point of sales Thesis Andren, Marcus
2014 Bitcoin : An empirical study on the future developments Thesis Benayed, Elie
2014 Threats to Bitcoin Software Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Kateraas, Christian H
2013 Digital Money Substitutes in a Two Sided Marked Perspective – A Case Study on Bitcoin Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Malmo, Espen Sunde
2014 Testing the Efficient Market Hypothesis on Bitcoin Exchanges Thesis, Uppsala University Shaub, David
2014 A bit risky? A comparison between Bitcoin and other assets using an intraday Value at Risk approach Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Valstad, Ole Christian Andreas
2014 (June) Is Bitcoin money? An analysis from the Austrian school of economic thought Thesis Ísak Andri Ólafsson
2014 Why Bitcoins Have Value, and Why Governments Are Sceptical Masters thesis Jenssen, Torbjørn Bull
2014 Taxation of virtual currency Thesis, Universiteit Leiden Bal, Aleksandra Marta
2013 Evaluating User Privacy in Bitcoin Financial Cryptography and Data Security Elli Androulaki, Ghassan O. Karame, Marc Roeschlin, Tobias Scherer, Srdjan Capkun
2013 Beware the Middleman: Empirical Analysis of Bitcoin-Exchange Risk Financial Cryptography and Data Security Tyler Moore,
2013 Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph Financial Cryptography and Data Security Dorit Ron, Adi Shamir
2013 Can We Afford Integrity by Proof-of-Work? Scenarios Inspired by the Bitcoin Currency The Economics of Information Security and Privacy Jörg Becker, Dominic Breuker, Tobias Heide, Justus Holler, Hans Peter Rauer, Rainer Böhme
2013 The Architecture of Coupon-Based, Semi-off-Line, Anonymous Micropayment System for Internet of Things Technological Innovation for the Internet of Things Daniel Wilusz, Jarogniew Rykowski
2013 “When perhaps the real problem is money itself!”: the practical materiality of Bitcoin Social Semiotics Maurer, Bill; Nelms, Taylor; Swartz, Lana
2013 The problem with Bitcoin Computer Fraud & Security Danny Bradbury
2013 The promise and perils of digital currencies International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection Tyler Moore
2013 Regulating Digital Currencies: Bringing Bitcoin within the reach of the IMF Chicago Journal of International Law Nicholas Plassaras
2013 (Dec) Is Bitcoin a Real Currency? An Economic Appraisal NBER Working Paper No. w19747 David Yermack
2013 (Dec) Why Bitcoin?: Structure and Efficiency of Markets for Online Game Currency SSRN (University of California, Riverside) Sukwon Thomas Kim
2013 (Dec) Of Bitcoins, Independently Wealthy Software, and the Zero-Member LLC FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 675 Shawn J. Bayern
2013 (Dec) As Certain as Death and Taxes: Consumer Considerations of Bitcoin Transactions for When the IRS Comes Knocking SSRN (University of New Mexico – School of Law) Jennifer Isom
2013 (Dec) Internet Protocol Adoption: Learning from Bitcoin IAB Workshop on Internet Technology Adoption and Transition (ITAT), Univ. of Cambridge Rainer Böhme
2013 (May) Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph Future Internet Micha Ober, Stefan Katzenbeisser 1, Kay Hamacher
2013 (May) I’ll gladly trade you two bits on Tuesday for a byte today: Bitcoin, regulating fraud in e-conomy of hacker cash Journal of Law, Technology and Policy Derek A. Dion
2013 (Nov) Trust, Identity, and Disclosure: Are Bitcoin Exchanges the Next Virtual Havens for Money Laundering and Tax Evasion? Quinnipiac L. Rev. 135 (2013) Sarah Michelle Gruber
2013 (Nov) A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations of the Bitcoin Economy Pittsburgh Tax Review, Forthcoming Benjamin W. Akins
2013 (Oct) Are Cryptocurrencies ‘Super’ Tax Havens? Michigan Law Review First Impressions 38 (2013) Omri Y. Marian (University of Florida – Fredric G. Levin College of Law)
2013 (Sept) Virtual Currency, Tangible Return: Portfolio Diversification with Bitcoins No 13-031, Working Papers CEB from ULB — Universite Libre de Bruxelles Marie Briere
2013 (Sept) The Bitcoin Virtual Currency: A Safe Haven for Money Launderers? SSRN (University of Wales System – Cardiff Law School) Ajibola Ogunbadewa
2013 (July) Cryptocurrencies, Network Effects, and Switching Costs Mercatus Center Working Paper No. 13-17 William J. Luther
2013 (June) Bitcoin is Memory SSRN (Kenyon College) William J. Luther
2013 (June) Stateless Virtual Money in the Tax System 53 Eur. Taxn. 7 (2013), Journals IBFD Aleksandra Bal (International Bureau for Fiscal Documentation (IBFD))
2013 (May) Breaking Out of the Bank in Europe – Exploring Collective Emergent Institutional Entrepreneurship Through Bitcoin SSRN (Stockholm School of Economics / Kairos Future) Robin Teigland
2013 (May) The Bitcoin Protocol as Law, and the Politics of a Stateless Currency SSRN Independent Sarah Jeong
2013 (May) The Legal Status of Online Currencies: Are Bitcoins the Future? Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice (2013) Rhys Bollen
2013 (March) Synthetic Commodity Money SSRN (The Cato Institute ; University of Georgia) George Selgin
2013 Virtual Uncertainty: Developments in the Law of Electronic Payments and Financial Services Business Lawyer, Vol. 69, 2013 Sarah Jane Hughes
2013 ‘Silk Road’, the virtual drug marketplace: A single case study of user experiences International Journal of Drug Policy Marie Claire Van Hout, Tim Bingham
2013 ‘Surfing the Silk Road’: A study of users’ experiences International Journal of Drug Policy Marie Claire Van Hout, Tim Bingham
2013 (Dec) Evolutionary Structural Analysis of the Bitcoin Network Stanford University Network Analysis Project Ben Holtz, Julie Fortuna, Jocelyn Neff
2013 (Sept) Cryptocurrencies, network effects and switching costs Mercatus Centre (GMU) Working Paper William J Luther
2013 The Economics of Bitcoin Mining, or Bitcoin in the Presence of Adversaries Princeton University Joshua A. Kroll, Ian C. Davey, and Edward W. Felten
2013 (Dec) The Bitcoin Project and the Free Market CES Working Papers Mihaela Iavorschi
2013 The Nature of the Form: Legal ad Regulatory Issues Surrounding the Bitcoin Digital Currency System 73 La. L. Rev. 1119 Doguet, Joshua
2013 Halting a Shift in the Paradigm: The Need for Bitcoin Regulation 16 Trinity C.L. Rev. 67 Twomey, Peter
2013 Overview of Bitcoin Community Survey 2013 UCL digital anthropology Lui Smyth
2013 Traveling the silk road: a measurement analysis of a large anonymous online marketplace Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on World Wide Web Nicolas Christin
2013 Accelerating Bitcoin’s Transaction Processing: Fast Money Grows on Trees, Not Chains The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Yonatan Sompolinsky, Aviv Zohar
2013 A Fistful of Bitcoins: Characterizing Payments Among Men with No Names University of California, San Diego George Mason University Sarah Meiklejohn, Marjori Pomarole, Grant Jordan Kirill, Levchenko Damon McCoy, Geoffrey M. Voelker, Stefan Savage
2013 Myth, machinery and cryptocoin avarice Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the International Association for Computing and Philosophy Haraši Namztohoto (pseudonym)
2013 (April) Bitcoin, the end of the Taboo on Money Planetary Collegium Denis Jaromil Roio
2013 (Nov) Transactions as Proof-of-Stake Independent Daniel Larimer
2013 (Nov) On the origins of Bitcoin: Stages of monetary evolution Independent Konrad S. Graf
2013 Anonymity of Bitcoin Transactions: An Analysis of Mixing Services Münster Bitcoin Conference Malte Möser
2013 Bitcoin: A primer for policymakers Mercatus Center Jerry Brito
2013 (Dec) BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era Scientific Reports, 3 Ladislav Kristoufek
2013 Have a Snack, Pay with Bitcoins 13-th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing Tobias Bamert, Christian Decker, Lennart Elsen, Roger Wattenhofer, Samuel Welten
2013 (May) Zerocoin: Anonymous Distributed E-Cash from Bitcoin IEEE: Security and Privacy (SP), 2013 IEEE Symposium on Miers, I., Garman, C. ; Green, M. ; Rubin, A.D.
2013 (Oct) Bitcoin and the age of Bespoke Silicon IEEE: Compilers, Architecture and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES), 2013 International Conference on Taylor, M.B.
2013 (Sept) Information propagation in the Bitcoin network IEEE: Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on Decker, C. ; ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland ; Wattenhofer, R.
2013 (May) BitDeposit: Deterring Attacks and Abuses of Cloud Computing Services through Economic Measures IEEE: Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), 2013 13th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Szefer, J. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ, USA ; Lee, R.B.
2013 (Sept) An inquiry into money laundering tools in the Bitcoin ecosystem IEEE: eCrime Researchers Summit (eCRS), 2013 Moser, M. ; Dept. of Inf. Syst., Univ. of Munster, Munster, Germany ; Bohme, R. ; Breuker, D.
2013 (Dec) Theoretical Bitcoin Attacks with less than Half of the Computational Power (draft) ArXiv Lear Bahack
2013 (Dec) How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions ArXiv Marcin Andrychowicz, Stefan Dziembowski, Daniel Malinowski, Łukasz Mazurek
2013 (Dec) The False Premises and Promises of Bitcoin ArXiv Brian P. Hanley
2013 (Oct) The Unreasonable Fundamental Incertitudes Behind Bitcoin Mining ArXiv Nicolas T. Courtois, Marek Grajek, Rahul Naik
2013 (Aug) Practical Aspects of the Bitcoin System ArXiv Artus Krohn-Grimberghe Christoph Sorge
2013 (May) Questions related to Bitcoin and other Informational Money ArXiv Jan A. Bergstra, Karl de Leeuw
2013 (April) Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Monies ArXiv Jan A. Bergstra, Karl de Leeuw
2013 Currency in transition: An ethnographic inquiry of Bitcoin adherents Masters thesis Justin Harrison Fletcher
2013 (Feb) SAT solving – An alternative to brute force bitcoin mining Short technical paper Jonathan Heusser
2012 Virtual money laundering: the case of Bitcoin and the Linden dollar Information & Communications Technology Law Robert Stokes
2012 The Dark Side of Cyber Finance Survival: Global Politics and Strategy Christopher Bronk, Cody Monk & John Villasenor
2012 An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System Security and Privacy in Social Networks Fergal Reid, Martin Harrigan
2012 Bitter to Better — How to Make Bitcoin a Better Currency Financial Cryptography and Data Security Simon Barber
2012 CommitCoin: Carbon Dating Commitments with Bitcoin Financial Cryptography and Data Security Jeremy Clark, Aleksander Essex
2012 (June) Case study of the Miner Botnet IEEE: Cyber Conflict (CYCON), 2012 4th International Conference on Plohmann, D. ; Cyber Defense Res. Group, Fraunhofer FKIE, Wachtberg, Germany ; Gerhards-Padilla, E.
2012 (Feb) Can We Afford Integrity by Proof-of-Work? Scenarios Inspired by the Bitcoin Currency Workshop on the Economics of Information Security WEIS 2012, Berlin, Germany Jörg Becker, Dominic Breuker, Tobias Heide, Justus Holler, Hans Peter Rauer, Rainer Böhme
2012 (Jan) Quasi-Commodity Money (Original version of the later ‘Synthetic Commodity Money’) University of Georgia George Selgin
2012 (March) Nerdy Money: Bitcoin, the Private Digital Currency, and the Case Against Its Regulation Temple Law Review / Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper Nikolei M. Kaplanov
2012 More Money, More Problems: The Bitcoin Virtual Currency and the Legal Problems that Face It 3 Case W. Res. J.L. Tech. & Internet 427 Daniel Smith
2012 A Structural Analysis of Bitcoin University of Rostock Clemens Cap
2012 Implementation, evaluation and detection of a doublespend-attack on Bitcoin ETH Zürich, Department of Computer Science (2012) Herrmann, Matthias
2012 (April) Is Bitcoin Money? Bitcoin and Alternate Theories of Money SSRN (Harvard University – Law School – Students) Sonal Mittal
2012 (Dec) An Analysis of the Bitcoin Electronic Cash System University of Waterloo Danielle Drainville
2012 (Dec) Homomorphic Payment Addresses and the Pay-to-Contract Protocol ArXiv Ilja Gerhardt, Timo Hanke
2012 Bits and Bets: Information, Price Volatility, and Demand for Bitcoin Independent Martis Buchholz, Jess Delaney, and Joseph Warren Jeff Parker
2012 Economics of Bitcoin: is Bitcoin an alternative to fiat currencies and gold? Thesis Peter Šurda
2012 Bitcoin – The Political ‘Virtual’ of an Intangible Material Currency Thesis Jansen, M.A.
2012 Two Bitcoins at the Price of One? Double-Spending Attacks on Fast Payments in Bitcoin Cryptology ePrint Archive Ghassan O. Karame and Elli Androulaki and Srdjan Capkun
2012 Bitcoin clients Thesis, Turku University of Applied Sciences Rostislav Skudnov
2012 Design and security analysis of Bitcoin infrastructure using application deployed on Google Apps Engine Thesis Piotr “ThePiachu” Piasecki
2011 (Dec) Bitcoin & Gresham’s Law – the economic inevitability of Collapse Independent Ian Grigg
2011 (Dec) Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems ArXiv Meni Rosenfeld
2011 (Nov) On Bitcoin and Red Balloons ArXiv Moshe Babaioff, Shahar Dobzinski, Sigal Oren, Aviv Zohar
2011 An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System ArXiv Fergal Reid, Martin Harrigan
2011 (Oct) Bitcoin: Tempering the Digital Ring of Gyges or Implausible Pecuniary Privacy SSRN Independent Matthew Elias
2011 (Sept) Bitcoin: An Innovative Alternative Digital Currency Hastings Science & Technology Law Journal Reuben Grinberg
2011 (July) Money Nutters Economic Sociology – The European Electronic Newsletter Bill Maurer
2011 Bitcoin NFC Thesis, University of Texas at Austin David Allen Bronleewe
2010 (Aug) Formaleuros, Formalbitcoins, and Virtual Monies ArXiv Jan A. Bergstra
2008 Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Independent Satoshi Nakamoto